What nanopowders are necessary for?
Nanodisperses materials are widely used as source material for ceramic and composite materials production, superconductors, sun batteries, filters, getters, lubricant dopes, colouring and magnet pigments, components of highly robust solder metals etc. Nanopowders are only one of many nanomaterials. Most of them, like dendrimers, fullerene, nanotubes, nanogaskets and nanopores are made of limited quantity types of base materials. All nanomaterials, which are used nowadays, are divided into four groups: oxides of metals, complex oxides (composed of two and more metals), powders of clear metals and mixtures. Oxides of metals make over 80% of all produced powders.
Powders of clear metals make a huge and growing amount of all production. Complex oxides and mixtures have a limited amount. But its use is expected to increase in longtime perspective. There is a range of common requirements, specific for all methods of getting UDP and it differs from methods of getting usual powders:
- High speed of forming centers of particle birth;
- Low speed of particle growth;
- Maximum particle size is not more than 100 nm;
- Narrow range distributions of particles by size;
- Stability of define size in producing particles;
- Reproducibility of chemical and phase particle composition;
Fundamental property change of traditional materials in nanodisperse condition (thaw point, evaporation heat, gap energy, electron work function etc. decrease) open wide opportunities in the field of making the newest materials and technologies, principally new devices.